What is Internet of Things (IoT)? A Complete Report

Author : Somasundaram R

Internet of Things

Imagine if every day to day usable things around you are connected with internet like our smartphone. Internet-connected car, bike, door lock, fan, light, coffee maker in the kitchen, water heater, Air conditioner, your wristwatch, and everything. In addition, these things programmed to sens you 24x7 with various sensors to monitor, control, and improve your day to day activity. It will be amazing, right! In simple terms, this is called Internet of Things(IoT). The term "The Internet of Things" was initially coined by Kevin Ashton in a presentation to Proctor & Gamble in 1999. He was a co-founder of MIT's Auto-ID Lab, its basic work is to improve the supply chain management using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). IoT is an emerging technology which is estimated to $14 Trillion business value e in the next ten years. In this article, we are going to find out the complete detail of What is IoT?

What is IoT?

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objects—devices, vehicles, buildings and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity—that enables these objects to collect and exchange data. Here things are uniquely identifiable nodes, primarily sensors that communicate without human interaction using IP connectivity.


What is 'Thing' in IoT?

A thing in IoT can be anything with sensor and internet connection. (Wrist Watch, Sunglass, TV, Car-Key, etc.) All these devices collect an enormous amount of data from every person and stored. Once data is collected, all the data from IoT devices are transferred to data analysis, as a result of this process some useful in-depth personal recommendations will be generated also it will lead to smart and efficient life. 

What is Smart? 

IoT is the combination of three Levels namely Instrument, Interconnect, and Intelligent. usually, smartness is described by analyzing the ability of thinking and timely action from a particular person or thing. In IoT, thigs are capable to do logical thinking to find a practical solution based on the historical data. some examples of smart things are Smart Grid, Smart Meters, Smart Cars, Smart homes, Smart Cities, Smart Factories, Smart Smoke Detectors, and so on.

4 Levels of Smartness

Basically, smartness of a thing works based on the level of sensor presented in the thing.

  • Passive smartness: In this level, a device will start to communicate based on the request to the device.  Example: Passive RFID, QR codes (Nirjeeva). 

  • Active smartness: In this level, a device will start to communicate when it connected with power supply.  Example: basic sensors in home automation.

  • Aware smartness: In this level, a device will start taking action based on simple computation. Example: Programmed telehealth monitoring. 

  • Autonomous smartness: In this level, a device can make decisions based on specific rules. Example: Autonomous cars, smart grid (Human)

How IoT differ from Wireless Sensor Networks(WSN)?

In WSN, spatially distributed sensors connected without a wire to monitor and record the physical conditions of the environment and organizing the collected data at a central location. But in IoT, physical things are embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and actuators are connected with internet. IoT devices are uniquely identifiable through its embedded computing system but are able to inter-operate within the existing Internet infrastructure. All sensor data further processed and analyzed in the data analyzing area.

How 5G and IPv6 will helpful to IoT

An IoT device can be a typical sensor node, a light bulb, a microwave oven, an electricity meter, an automobile part, a smartphone, a PC or a laptop, a powerful server machine or even a cloud. Hence the number of potential devices that can be connected to the IoT is in hundreds of billions. This requires the use of IPv6, a new version of the Internet Protocol that increases the address size from 32 bits to 128 bits (2128 unique addresses). Also, a number of protocols are being standardized to fulfill the specific needs of the IoT. Also, the inclusion of 5G telecommunication with IPv6 improves the performance with the high data rate, reduced latency, energy saving, cost reduction, higher system capacity, and massive device connectivity.

How IoT Works?

The above video shows the exact working procedure of an IoT network and its applications.

7 Layers of IoT

Internet of things

The 7 layers of IoT includes the three emerging technologies in computer science such as Fog computing, Cloud computing, and Big data analytics. Sensed physical information from things are sent to cloud throw communication gateways then stored data are analyzed to get better business value.

Requirements of IoT

IoT devices are also called resource-constrained devices. unlike traditional devices, IoT devices require very less memory, less processing, and less battery backup. at the same time, providing sustainable energy back up to the remote device and implementing high-security features for sensitive data transmission are still challenging to implement a better IoT ecosystem. 'IoT = Sensing + Communication + Computation' - some important components required to complete this sensing, communication, and computing are given below.

  • Micro-Sensors: Temperature, Moisture, Pressure, air quality, and so on.

  • Tags: Radio Frequency Id (RFID), Quick Response (QR) Codes, and so on.

  • Energy Efficient Communication: Small or no batteries, Personal area communication (PAN), Bluetooth, ZigBee, … 

  • Micro-Computing: Micro multi-core chips, Raspberry Pi, Intel Galileo, Arduino, and so on. 

  • Cloud Computing: Little or no local computing.

  • Open/Small operating systems: Linux.

IoT Applications:

Internet of Things

The applications of IoT is not limited to a particular domain. the possibility and opportunity of implementing the technology is everywhere. some important applications are given below.

  • Smart cities(Smart Transport, Automatic waste management, Automatic renewable energy maintenance, and so on).

  • Retail points and Automatic purchase units (Ex: Amazon Go).

  • Smart Grids, Agriculture, Smart Farming, and irrigation.

  • Homes Automation

  • The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) and Connected cars

  • Healthcare-Internet of Medical Things (IoMT)

  • Connected railways infrastructure.

  • Wearable devices, Logistics, and The industrial Internet

Advantages of IoT to live Smart Life

IoT simplifies and transforms your life into smart life, you can control everything from a remote site at any time, and it will give the accurate prediction with high business value.

Disadvantages of IoT

All the technologies have their own pros and cons. security and privacy are the major concern in IoT network for the reason that the resource-constrained devices could not compute the complex cryptographic algorithms. The system needs to ensure the device security and privacy at any circumstance in order to protect from the adversary.

IoT Implementation and Testing requirements

Development toolkits and libraries

  • Arduino

  • Eclipse IoT Project

  • Kinoma

  • M2MLabs Mainspring

  • Node-RED

  • ThingBox

  • Automation for home and offices

  • ​​​​Eclipse SmartHome

  • Home Gateway Initiative (HGI)

  • Ninja Blocks

  • openHAB

  • PrivateEyePi

  • RaZberry

  • The Thing System


  • IoTSyS

  • Kaa

  • OpenIoT

  • OpenRemote

Operating systems

  • AllJoyn

  • Brillo

  • Contiki

  • FreeRTOS

  • Raspbian

  • RIOT

  • Spark

  • TinyOS

IoT integration tools and horizontal platforms

  • Canopy

  • Chimera IoT

  • DeviceHive

  • IoT Toolkit

  • M2MLabs Mainspring

  • Mango

  • Nimbits

  • Open Source Internet of Things (OSIoT)

  • OpenRemote

  • Pico Labs

  • prpl Foundation

  • RabbitMQ

  • SiteWhere

  • SiteWhere

  • ThingSpeak

  • webinos

  • Yaler


  • Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP)

  • Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)

  • Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP)

  • OASIS Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT)

  • Very Simple Control Protocol (VSCP)

Implementations for engineering

  • Open Garden

  • Open Source Robotics Foundation

  • OpenWSN

Different open research areas in IoT

Since IoT is in the initial stage of development there are plenty of research opportunities available. The following are some of the key research issues in IoT

  • Naming and Addressing: Advertising, Searching, and Discovery 

  • Service Orchestration and Routing 

  • Power, Energy, Efficient resource management, and Energy Harvesting 

  • Things to Cloud: Computation and Communication Gateways 

  • Miniaturization: Sensors, CPU, and network 

  • Big Data Analytics: 35 ZB of data $2B in value by 2020

  • Semantic technologies: Information and data models for interoperability

  • Virtualization: Multiple sensors aggregated, or a sensor shared by multiple users 

  • Privacy/Security/Trust/Identity/Anonymity Target Pregnancy Prediction 

  • Heterogeneity/Dynamics/Scale is the open research topics in IoT.

The above-mentioned research areas are still split into multiple sub-branches. It simply shows the requirements of huge contribution to improve the existing IoT infrastructure.

IoT the Future

The world technology pioneer already in the process of developing many IoT products like Nest – thermostats, Brillo Operating System, Android Things, and Google wave. many companies are investing billions of USD in IoT research and development. In United State itself, more than 401 companies invested in IoT based AI and machine learning projects,282 companies invested in Connected home project, and around 240 companies invested in Healthcare - Enterprise. this numbers A report from Forbes say that "IoT In The USA includes more than 3,000 Companies with $125B In Funding and $613B In Valuation". This stat simply shows the future of IoT technology.

    Why IoT Now? 

    Internet of Things

    Opportunities and accessibility are the two important terms always moves the technology into the next level. Yes, the fast internet accessing facility throw out the world and easy mobile accessibility among people made the IoT give better services. As the technology roadmap image shows now we are going to move from 'ubiquitous positioning' to 'Physicalworldl web'. In order to monitor and control the distant objects, the need for IoT is essential.

    You May Also Love

    Top 10 Internet of Things(IoT) Journals

    10 High-Profit New Business Opportunities in 2019

    10 Jobs That Will Disappear In The Next 10 Years


     Login to Comment